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Diabetes Insipidus

General Information

Diabetes insipidus is characterized by increased thirst and increased urination. These can result from deficiency of a body chemical (antidiuretic hormone) normally produced by the pituitary gland, or they may be due to the kidney's inability to respond properly to the hormone.

Your pet may require hospitalization to confirm the diagnosis, since there are several other possible causes of increased thirst and urination. With diabetes insipidus, treatment is usually necessary for the remainder of your pet's life.

Important Points in Treatment

1. General measures: Medication is geven by injection every 24-48 hours. Discuss this procedure with the doctor. A few days of treatment are generally necessary to establish the proper dosage.

2. Medication: Give ____________milliliters intramuscularly/subcutaneously every _______ hours.

3. Diet: Follow the instructions checked.

_____ Feed the normal diet.

_____ A special diet is required. Feed as follows: ________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

4. Activity: No changes in activity are necessary.

5. Special instructions: ____________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

 

Notify the Doctor of Any of the Following Occur:

* Your pet begins to lose weight.

* Your pet's abdomen seems to enlarge.

* Your pet vomits repeatedly.

* There is a change in your pet's general health.

Understanding your pet's diagnosis

Diabetes Insipidus

What is Diabetes Insipidus?

Diabetes insipidus is a disorder of water balance. The animal is unable to concentrate urine, so the urine volume is very high and the urine is dilute. "Insipid" means tasteless -- referring to the dilute urine. This disease is rare in both dogs and cats. The condition is usually permanent, and the prognosis is good. Without treatment, dehydration leads to stupor, coma, and death. This is a completely different disease from Diabetes Mellitus, a disorder of sugar metabolism involving the hormone insulin.


Types of diabetes incipidus

Signs

Diagnosis

Diagnosis includes ruling out other diseases such as hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's disease), diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism (in cats), renal failure, liver disease, pyometra (infection of the uterus), and other disorders.
Images of the pituitary gland may be taken to determine if there is a tumor.
A water deprivation test or an ADH trial with DDAVP may be done These tests determin if the animal is able to produce more concentrated urine as water is withheld or following the injection of DDAVP (the drug used to treat diabetes insipidus).
Treatment

Central diabetes insipidus is treated with desmopressin (trade name DDAVP), a drug that mimics the actions of ADH. An intranasal preparation is available for humans, and this same drug can be given as eyedrops or as subcutaneous injections.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is commonly treated with thiazide diuretics. These drugs help to concentrate the urine. An oral drug called chlorothiazide acts on the kidneys to help concentrate the urine. Other treatments may include chloropropamide, which increases the effects of ADH on the kidney. But chloropropamide is not always successful. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be used in dogs. No therapy may be chosen, and the pets can survive as long as water is always available.

The information on this page was obtained from the site www.petdiabetes.org