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Distemper in Dogs
Canine distemper is a paramyxovirus which appear very similar to the paramyxovirus causing human measles. The virus in the canine can affect a wide range of organs including the skin, brain, eyes, intestinal and respiratory tracts. The virus is transmitted through the air in addition to body secretions such as urine. Dogs of any age can be affected, however most are puppies less than 6 months of age.
What are the symptoms?
Distemper virus can affect many systems of the body. The most common signs are nasal and eye discharge, coughing, diarrhea, vomiting and seizures. Mildly affected dogs may only cough and be misdiagnosed as "kennel cough." Others may develop pneumonia. Puppies that recover may have severe enamel damage. The nose and foot pads of the young dog may become thickened, hence the nickname "hardpad disease."
What are the risks?
Distemper is serious and can spread rapidly through a kennel especially if unvaccinated individuals are present. Not all patients will die, however a significant number may. Dogs of every age are susceptible, however the very young and old have the highest death rate. Death rates may be as high as 75%. It is erroneously believed by some that all older dogs have a natural immunity. Although some may have immunity, many do not. Patients that recover from distemper may suffer permanent damage to vision as well as the nervous system. Puppies which recover can have severely mottled teeth due to abnormalities of the developing enamel.
How is canine distemper treated and prevented?
There is no specific treatment for canine distemper. Therapy is largely supportive. intravenous fluids are administered to prevent dehydration. Anti-seizure medications can be used if neurologic signs develop.
Excellent vaccines have been developed to prevent distemper.
The vaccines have been widely used for many years and have made
significant strides in reducing the frequency of this disease.
In the past, vaccines comprised of the human measles virus were
occasionally utilized as a preventative. Using measles vaccines
is a seldom practiced procedure today. Excellent vaccines with
minimal side effects are available to give to puppies and dogs
of every age. It must be emphasized that many older dogs do not
develop a life long immunity to distemper. The vaccinations should
be given yearly for life.
Important Points in Treatment
1. Distemper is a serious disease that is often fatal. Currently we have no drugs to destroy the virus. Treatment is aimed at supporting general health and preventing bacterial infections. In many cases, hospital treatment is necessary.
2. Give all medication as directed. Call the doctor if you cannot give the medication.
3. Wipe away any secretions from the eyes, nose and mouth several times each day. Call the doctor if you cannot keep the nostrils unplugged.
4. Diet: Good nutrition is vital to recovery from distemper.
____Feed as follows: ______________________________________
5. Special instructions: _______________________________________________
Notify the Doctor if Any of the Following Occur:
* Your dog refuses to eat or drink.
* Your dog has difficulty breathing.
* Your dog vomits or has diarrhea.
* Your dog has seizures or convulsions.
* Your dog's signs worsen.
The information on this page was obtained from the site www.peteducation.com